Author Archives: Kath

Reducing the amount of yeast you use for your loaf

In these strange COVID19 times many of us are wanting to make our own bread but are finding it hard to get flour and yeast easily. If you have yeast and are worried that you may run out soon, remember that your bread will still rise if you use only one-third of a sachet of easy bake for every loaf. It will take longer to rise, but will be all the better for it, taste wise, as a result. You can also develop a pre-ferment using a tiny bit of yeast, which will, over a few hours, multiply the yeast cells to raise a delicious, chewy loaf that will last longer than your usual loaf. All bonuses. The following text is taken from my booklet on Advanced Doughs, so if you have been on my Ciabattas and Baguettes course you will already have this knowledge at your fingertips. But I hope this will serve as a timely reminder or if you haven’t been on an advanced course this will help you to learn new skills during lockdown.


Using Pre-ferments
You can improve the flavour of your bread by using a pre-ferment. Your loaf will not only have a more developed flavour but also a chewier and glossier crumb and better keeping qualities. 

A pre-ferment is simply preparing part of your dough several hours before you make your final loaf. There is a lot of conflicting and complicated information about pre-ferments and many names for it out there on the internet so I aim to keep it simple.  

A pre-ferment differs from a sourdough culture because the pre-ferment uses commercial yeast rather than wild yeast from the air.  A pre-ferment cannot be endlessly revitalised like a sourdough culture. When it’s ready to use, it’s ready to use. An over-fermented pre-ferment will have collapsed and the yeast will have weakened the dough, stripping its gluten and this will make a weaker and flatter dough that will fail to rise.

The pre-ferment will improve your everyday bread, is essential to a ciabatta and makes a proper baguette.  It will also help to improve the flavour of a sweet dough, helping the dough to rise through the fats and the sugars. It can be used in any of your bread recipes to improve the flavour. 

There are three main types of pre-ferment – the poolish, the big-a and the pate fermentee. 

Pate fermentee means ‘old dough’. It is often used by traditional bakers to improve the flavour of their loaf.  It is as simple as retaining a piece of dough after the first rise and before shaping and popping it into the fridge to use the next day in the next loaf. Pate fermentee has salt in it, something to consider when you add salt to your final dough. So, if you are baking regularly at the moment, consider taking 50-100g of the dough and wrapping it well and placing in the fridge. You can then add more flour and water (and a reduced amount of salt, say 6g to every 500g flour as a maximum) to this ‘old’ dough and use this to rise your loaf instead of using yeast. This ‘old’ dough will be good to use for a maximum of three days.

The poolish is often used in French bakeries. It is a wet pre-ferment, 100% flour, 100% (or more) water and a little bit of yeast. It is left to develop between 8 and 16 hours. The amount of yeast that you add depends on several factors. If you want to use the poolish in 8 hours time you need a little more yeast than one you want to use in 16 hours. If it is summer and the kitchen is warm then you will need less yeast than on a cold winter’s day when the kitchen is cold.  You don’t add salt to a poolish until you make the final dough.  As a guide, I use one-eighth of a teaspoon, or a pinch, of easy bake (aka instant) yeast to 100g flour and 100g water and leave it to get very bubbly on the surface and then add 400g flour, 200g -250g water (adding the extra 50g as and when it is needed according to the flour) and 5-10g salt and make bread in the usual manner.

The biga is Italian and very similar to a poolish, except that it is a much drier mix. You use 100% flour to 50-55% water and a little yeast.  Because it is a drier dough it takes longer for it to reach full fermentation. This means that it can be made up to 18 hours (kept in the fridge) ahead of making up your final dough. It is less likely to lose its gluten strength than a poolish and because of the longer fermentation time it means that it potentially has time to develop extra flavour with the acetic and lactic acids having more time to get to work. So, I will use one-eighth teaspoon (or a pinch) of easy bake yeast to 100g flour and 50-55g water and mix to a smooth dough. Leave to ferment until doubled in size (several hours in a warm kitchen or 18 hours in a fridge) and then add 400g flour, 275-300g water and 5-10g salt and proceed as usual.

Pre-ferments can make up to 50% of the final dough. The more you use the less time is needed for the first and second rise of your bread. The less you use, the longer the fermentation time, but the better the flavour development of your final loaf.

You can choose whether you give your final dough an extra boost with a little more yeast. If you add more yeast then you reduce the time the dough needs for its first and second rise.  If you do add more yeast then reduce the final amount by at least half. So, if you normally use 5g of easy bake in a 500g loaf then you will only need 2g of total easy-bake yeast in a dough using a preferment. This might be 0.5g in the pre-ferment and then 1.5g to use as a boost in the final dough. 

I hope this helps you to use less yeast to make delicious bread. If you need any more bread help, I am always at the end of an email.
If you have very limited access to commercial yeast this may be the time to think about starting your sourdough journey. I have a post about making a sourdough starter here.

Making and looking after a sourdough starter

Making sourdough bread can be incredibly rewarding and the bread can be incredibly delicious. When a loaf goes right you will always want just one more piece of bread for your dinner or one more piece of toast for your breakfast and you will have to force yourself to walk a suitable distance away from the bread board.

Sourdough can also be frustrating. Although, do not let that statement put you off. Part of the pleasure of sourdough is that it presents a challenge. Relax about it, don’t worry if the loaf you have made isn’t perfect, next time it will be better and the next time after that.

There are a number of factors that affect the fermentation of the dough, including the weather – it will react differently on a warm day to a cold day. The biggest factor though will always be the health of your starter and if you can get that right then your loaf will always be good and sometimes it will be great. Again, my advice is to relax about it. It really is very easy, if you have been given a starter then you can keep it in the fridge form the get-go. If you are starting from scratch then it will need your attention for a few minutes twice a day for the first five to ten days, after that it too can live quite happily in the fridge only needing your attention the day before you want to bake.

Three sourdough starters
Three vigorous starters. White at the bottom, wholemeal in the middle and rye at the top.

Starting a sourdough starter:
TIPS:
Use organic flour to get your starter off to the best start. Organic flour will have more yeasts and good bacteria in it than a flour that has been treated with pesticides and fungicides.
Tap water is fine to use, unless you live in an area that has highly chlorinated water. In the UK, our tap water is acceptable to use. If you really want to, you can use spring water, but I have always used tap water.
The yeasts work best when oxygen is freely available to them so stir your starter regularly to give the yeasts an oxygen boost.
You can choose which flour you use in your starter but I would recommend that you start with wholemeal rye flour as this will be the most vigorous. In the photo above I have three different starters, this is only for the purposes of my sourdough courses. You only need to maintain one and you can change it from one flour to another by giving it a refresh. If you wanted to change a rye starter to a white starter then take 1 tablespoon of rye starter and add 100g white flour and 100g water and stir briskly and leave to rise for 6-8 hours. You can then use it or repeat to build up a stronger white starter.
Day 1
In a small pot mix together 25g organic flour (your choice of white, wholemeal or rye) and 25g water. Give it a brisk stir. Cover lightly and keep in a warm place. Not too warm, anything over 55℃ will kill the yeasts, so don’t keep it on the back of a warm oven. Leave it for at least 8 hours or for 24-48 hours, stirring every so often. It may develop a few bubbles, this is unlikely to be the yeasts yet, so don’t worry if these bubbles disappear the next day.

Day 2
Add 25g flour and 25g water and give a brisk stir. Cover lightly and leave again for at least 8 hours and for as long as 48 hours. Stir it a couple of times during this period.

Day 3
Add 25g flour and 25g water and stir. By the end of the day you should have some bubbles appearing. Don’t worry if you haven’t keep persevering. Your starter won’t be ready for use yet and will have an unpleasant smell. 

Day 4 
If your starter is now becoming too large you can discard half of it. Add another 25g flour and 25g water. Stir briskly to incorporate air.  

Day 5
Add 25g flour and 25g water. By the end of this day your starter should now be bubbly and vigorous. It should no longer smell unpleasant, but have a hint of sweetness and a smell like apple cider vinegar. If it is like this you can use it to make your first loaf. If it hasn’t developed the fruity smell and still seems a bit lacklustre with few bubbles then keep giving it a daily dose of 25g flour and 25g water and stirring vigorously a couple of times a day. (My first starter wasn’t ready until day nine). It will take longer if your kitchen is cool, for example.

Once it has developed that pleasant fruity apple cider vinegar smell you need to give it a good boost.  It has spent the last five to ten days being weakened by acidity and enzyme activity so now, to get it ready for making a loaf, add at least three times its weight of flour and water at a hydration rate of 67%. So discard all but 50g of the starter and add 150g of flour and 100g of water. Give it a brisk stir. 

Once it has rested at room temperature for at least six hours it will be ready to use.

How to maintain your starter:
Now you have a mother starter. You can now keep this perpetually.
I keep my starter in a plastic jug with a piece of clingfilm draped over the top. The clingfilm keeps any dust out of the starter. Every couple of weeks I decant the starter into a clean jug so that I avoid having crusty bits of starter up the sides as this is where bad bacteria will be given a helping hand to breed. By using a jug I can better see how well it is rising after each feed. Do not keep in an airtight container. It will build up pressure when fermenting and the pressure will have no way of escaping and the container may explode.

Unless you are using your starter three or four times a week to bake then my advice is to keep it in the fridge most of the time. Once you have an established starter it will happily slow its fermentation down in the fridge and then you can give it a boost to wake it back up the day before you want to bake again. This method reduces waste and minimises the amount of time you have to spend to maintain your starter. If you leave your starter at room temperature you will have to feed it daily to keep it healthy and then you will have to discard half each time you feed it. Discarding so much flour can become frustrating and expensive.

Once you have a healthy, active starter and it has got all vigorous and bubbly then pop it in the fridge. Remember to label it or a family member might throw it away mistaking it for something else. This does not lead to happy family relations!

The day before you want to bake your next loaf bring the starter out of the fridge. My starters have sat happily in the fridge for three weeks or more, so don’t worry if you have been away on holiday or not had time to bake, your starter will wait for you. Have a look at the starter. If there is a black mould sitting on top, this is bad news. You will need to throw it away and start again. If there is a liquid hooch sitting on top (a bit grey and smelling very vinegary) that’s fine, strain it off and discard. Most likely, the starter will have grown a crust or skin. Take a clean spoon and lift this off the top and discard. Underneath you will have a soupy mixture which was the same colour that the starter was when you first put it the fridge. Discard all but a couple of tablespoons. Add 100g flour and 100g water and give it a really brisk stir. Leave at room temperature for 6-8 hours and it should have become bubbly and vigorous. If it still seems lethargic, repeat by discarding all but a couple of tablespoons and adding 100g flour and 100g water. It should double in size. It is then ready to use in a recipe and pop the unused portion (always remember to keep back at least 1 tablespoon) back into the fridge for next time.

I hope this helps demystify the process of starting and maintaining a sourdough starter. If you have any questions please feel free to get in touch.

Using Freshly Milled Flour

Komo flour mill

The photo shows my Komo flour mill in action. Using freshly milled flour makes a huge difference to the taste of your bread, cakes, scones and biscuits. When you mill fresh flour the flour smells of wheat. That may sound obvious but I am yet to open a bag of flour and smell the wheat in the same way that you smell it when it is freshly ground. Using freshly milled flour in your baking will lead to your bread and cakes etc tasting and smelling sweet and delicious. Freshly ground wholemeal flour is as nutritious as flour can get. As flour ages it loses its nutritional value. If you are grinding the flour minutes before using it, you get the full nutritional benefit.

Using freshly milled flour in bread making is not without its challenges however. As flour ages the gluten stabilises. It takes two weeks for gluten to stabilise fully. This is why flour from large mills tends to be aged artificially by oxidising the flour before being sent out to retail. Most flour that you buy has been sitting in warehouses and on the shop shelf for longer than two weeks since milling. Using freshly milled flour means that you are working with weaker gluten. The flour is stickier to work with, it takes a while to absorb the water as you add it and it can seem to be able to take a lot more water than normal but then will leach the water back out after allowing the dough to rest. It takes some getting used to when working with freshly milled flour for bread, but the benefits far outweigh the negatives. The taste and fragrance more than compensates for the slightly denser loaf.

When using freshly milled flour in cakes, biscuits or scones the less stable gluten can work in your favour adding a tenderness and lightness to the finished bake that you can’t get when working with an aged wholemeal flour. Using freshly milled wholemeal flour in a Victoria sponge results in an incredibly light and tasty cake. The biscuits and scones will taste better than any you have ever tasted before.

If you would like to learn more about using freshly milled flour in your baking you can join me for a full day class where we will use freshly milled flour to make bread, biscuits and scones. I will also be talking about the benefits of freshly milled flour at this year’s Ludlow Food Festival. This year’s festival promises to be better than ever as they celebrate 25 years. I am doing a Talk and Tasting at 11am on Friday 13th September all about freshly milled flour and you can also catch me later the same day at 3.15pm in the Bake in Time tent talking about bread making.

http://www.ludlowfoodfestival.co.uk/whats-on-at-ludlow-food-festival

The Veg Patch Loaf Instalment 8

The wheat just before harvest in August 2018.

 

Sorting the wheat from the chaff

Sorting the wheat from the chaff

Well, I am ashamed to tell you that it’s 5th December and I have just spent two hours threshing and winnowing the wheat. It has taken me this long to get around to it. This is partly due to being busy and partly down to procrastination.  I just didn’t know how to go about it. I intended to thresh and winnow on a dry but breezy day in the garden but every time a day like this came along something else was happening and I just didn’t have the time to get out a sheet and stamp all over the wheat and then throw it up up the air so that the breeze could blow away the chaff and the wheat grain would drop into a bucket.

Instead of getting on with the job, the wheat ears have been sitting in a bowl on the dining room table since they were harvested in August.

Today is a cold and rainy day and I knew that if I wanted to get it done this side of Christmas this was my only window of opportunity, so I set myself up in front of the telly. I put newspaper and an old sheet on the floor and spread the wheat ears on the sheet. I folded it over and stamped all over the wheat ears. Then I squeezed them between my hands to get the last few grains free.  April Bearded Wheat has long, sharp beards that pierce through your jumper and get stuck in your arms and hands.

Then I placed handfuls of the chaff and grain in a colander over a sieve  and gave it a shake, then swapped so that I was shaking over the colander. Then I blew away the chaff. It made a mess and I breathed in a lot of dust.

From the 40g of original grain I have harvested 200g.  Not exactly a raging success but then I am  not a very conscientious harvester either, so probably lost a fair amount of grain to the local mouse family.  In between cutting down the straw and chopping off the heads of grain the wheat stood in a (sort of) bushel in the greenhouse. The cats found it made an attractive bed and scratched it about and I have no doubt that some of it was also eaten by one of the chickens before I caught her in the act.  All in all I would make a terrible farmer.

200g is not enough grain to make half a loaf of bread.  I am in two minds as to whether I grind it up and combine it with another flour to make a loaf or keep the seed and plant it again in the spring in a larger patch and see what yield I can get in 2019. I am favouring the latter. If I combine it with another flour I won’t be able to test how the April Bearded really performs as a flour. But if I plant it again, I could potentially lose the whole crop. I think, if we have learned anything from this experiment it is that I will not be winning any Farmer of the Year awards any time soon.

Answers and opinions on the above dilemma are very welcome.

200g of cleaned grain

Although 200g is a meagre amount of grain to have harvested I have really enjoyed the process and it has certainly made me appreciate the effort needed to grow wheat. For me, it has been a game. It didn’t matter if the crop failed or if I managed to yield 200g.  But by doing it I have learned so much more about the grains I use to make my bread.  It has spurred me to read more  about wheat varieties and populations, landraces and heritage wheats and to understand how complicated wheat growing is for the farmer, with soil nutrition and managing the threats of weather, pests and disease and so much more. Growing my small patch of wheat has strengthened my resolve to support the farmers that are making the effort to grow the more unusual grains organically or with care for the biodiversity of their farms and the wider environment and I will never take a bag of grain or flour for granted again. 

 

Learning more about bread

Whilst I am working I sometimes like to listen to podcasts.  There is a wealth of information out there that you can just absorb as you go about your daily business. If you want to learn more about bread – whether that’s making it, the history of it or how grain gets from the farmer into your loaf, there is plenty to listen to out there.

Here are just some of the podcasts that I have enjoyed listening to and learned from. If you know of any more please add a comment below. As I come across new ones I will list them here.

Heritage Radio have recorded a comprehensive series of podcasts with the authors of Modernist Bread. The first episode, and all the subsequent ones, can be found at http://heritageradionetwork.org/podcast/pre-ferment/. It’s full of interesting information about bread making and the use of grains.

If you are interested in hearing about life from the baker’s perspective the Rise Up podcast from Mark Dyck in Canada is an interesting listen.

Stella Culinary have some really interesting podcasts and videos about bread making available at https://stellaculinary.com/cooking-videos/stella-bread

Eat This Podcast has done a series of podcasts around the subject of wheat and bread that are interesting to listen to. You can find the first one at https://www.eatthispodcast.com/our-daily-bread-00/

Ludlow Food Festival Sept 7th, 8th & 9th

If you are wondering what you should do this weekend then I definitely recommend you consider getting to Ludlow for its food festival.  I went along to give a Talk and Tasting last year, and it had been a few years since I last went along and I was amazed at how much there was to see and do.  This year there is a full programme of chefs and food writers on the Wot’s Cooking Stage and the Graeme Kidd Stage. There is the Fire Kitchen Stage, the Talks and Tastings, the Aardark Festival Bookshop talks, coffee masterclasses, Slow Food Taste Workshops, chocolate tastings and so much more.

If you would like to see me, and please, do come along and say hello, I will be in the Bake In Time tent in the Outer Bailey. I will be doing my thing on the Friday (12.30-1.30pm and 3.15-4.00pm), Saturday (12.30-1.30 and 3.15-4.00) and Sunday (12.30-1.30).  I am in a tent with Howard Middleton, Sandy Docherty and  Val Stones, all from the Great British Bake Off, and then me.  I will be trying to fill Rob Swift’s boots for the  three lunch time sessions (get yourselves to his bread stall, Bread2Bake, to stock up), so do come along and give me a wave.

 

Why make your own bread?

The answer to the question ‘Why make your own bread when you can buy it at every supermarket for about 70p a loaf?’ could be answered in many ways.

I could go on about how therapeutic bread making is. It is no coincidence that many organisations helping people that are facing social exclusion or struggling with mental health issues or are  being rehabilitated during or after their prison sentence are using bread making as part (or indeed the very crux) of their strategy. You can read more about this at The Real Bread Campaign. I find the process of bread making very relaxing. It’s not only the physical kneading (which I rarely do as I prefer to stretch and fold my dough in the bowl), but it’s also the fact that it is goal based. You have to keep going back to it, checking it, folding it, shaping it, baking it and then waiting patiently for it to cool. Whatever else might be happening in your day, your bread is there, needing attention, drawing you back to it and requiring your focus, even if for just a few minutes at a time.

I could mention how satisfying it is to feed your family with bread that you have made. I love putting a good loaf on the table and watching people tuck in.  I cannot tell you how satisfying it is to have my children (now in their teen and pre-teen years) eat my bread. For many years they have resented the home made bread and wished that I would buy them a sliced white loaf. Now, finally, they will eat and enjoy my bread, even my sourdough (as long as I tell them that it is white bread), they look at me suspiciously knowing that I am stretching the truth (it’s normally sourdough made with mostly white flour but with wholemeal added in for good measure) but they do, mostly, eat it.

But what I really want to mention is that homemade bread is made up of the ingredients that you choose to use. It has three (sourdough bread) or four (yeasted bread) basic ingredients – flour, water, salt and yeast. Then you can choose to add olive oil, butter, eggs, milk, sugar, dried fruit, olives, walnuts, tomatoes, onions, etc, etc.  You can choose the flour.  You can choose flour from your local mill, or a mill that stone grinds it flour, or flour made from a heritage wheat, or organic flour, or wholemeal flour, or seeded flour, or granary flour. You can choose which yeast to use, fresh (100% chemical free), active dried (with emulsifier) or easy bake/instant (with emulsifier and ascorbic acid).

If you do buy a loaf then buy it from a bakery that cares. Ask your baker how long the bread is fermented for? Whether they use pre-ferments? Whether they use natural sourdough starters, fresh yeast or easy bake?  If they can answer your questions, and you like the answers, then buy your bread from there. If they can’t give you an answer then they have probably bought the bread from one of the big factories frozen and ready to bake by them.

If you buy from a supermarket have a look at the label. If it is baked in-store then it might only have the essential allergens noted, as that all labelling law requires. If that’s the case then take a look at their online store. That  can give you a lot more information, depending on the supermarket.  I did that this morning. I looked at one of the UK’s biggest supermarkets’ online grocery store and found their unsliced Crusty White Farmhouse Bread, which they describe as ‘scored and with a light flour dusting for a rustic finish’. This is the bread that you buy from the Bakery shelf and it is baked in-house in their larger stores (that might mean from scratch baking or baked from frozen, depending on the supermarket and the size of the store). Here is the list of ingredients for that particular loaf:

Wheat flour, Water, Yeast, Processing Aid – (Calcium Sulphate, Rapeseed Oil, Water, Soya Oil, Calcium Silicate, Enzymes, Thermally Oxidised Soya Bean Oil interacted with Mono- and Di- glycerides of Fatty Acids, Silicon Dioxide) Salt, Rapeseed Oil, Spirit Vinegar, Emulsifiers (Mono- and Di-Glycerides of Fatty Acids, Mono- and Di-Acetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Mono and Di-Glycerides of Fatty Acids), Sugar, Wheat Gluten, Soya Flour, Flavouring, Palm Oil, Flour Treatment Agent (Ascorbic Acid).  

I am not a food scientist (or any kind of scientist) so I don’t understand what most of these more scientific sounding ingredients are, which is rather my point*. If I can eat bread that doesn’t contain unnamed enzymes and Mono- and Di- Acetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Mono-and Di-Glycerides of Fatty Acids, then I think I will continue to make and eat that bread rather than subject my stomach to this cocktail of scientifically produced food.  *(I have googled some of these ingredients and the details of what I found are at the bottom of this post if you are interested to find out more).

The bread available from the large industrial bakeries is made with efficiency and economics in mind rather than any health or, indeed, taste benefits. It’s made with speed. This means that you don’t benefit from the long fermentation that homemade bread or bread from a good bakery can offer. Proper fermentation increases the digestibility of bread.  Industrially and speedily made bread is harder to digest. They have to add all of these processing aids, enzymes, chemicals and extra gluten to get that soft, well risen loaf because they don’t have the time for that to happen naturally with a good, long fermentation.  Manufactured bread has very little to do with proper bread making and a lot to do with producing a cheap food stuff that has little nutritional value and is difficult to digest. There is an interesting short podcast about industrial bread and the history of the Chorleywood Bread Process on the Eat This Podcast site.

If you really don’t want to make your own bread, or think you don’t have the time, then there is some good bread available out there at local bakeries or that can be purchased online from some of the bigger artisan bakeries and if you do buy supermarket bread then make sure you do some research first. Have a look at their online store and check the list of ingredients.  There are a few offerings out there that don’t have added enzymes, emulsifiers and chemicals.  Whilst I was checking the ingredients of that first loaf described above I checked the other loaves available at the same supermarket and you can buy an Ancient Grain Bloomer that has only natural ingredients listed. It’s more than twice the price of the first loaf, but you get what you pay for.  Beware of their sourdough though, a sourdough loaf should be long fermented and contain only flour, water and salt. Theirs contains Ascorbic Acid and a Non-Declarable Processing Aid (Enzymes). Although some credit must go to them for declaring the non-declarable processing aid, as many others don’t. In fact, in comparison with other supermarkets this one is much more open with their labelling than some of the others. Other online grocery stores do not declare the full list of their ingredients of their freshly baked range, listing only the allergens.

If you choose to buy bread rather than make it at home, then please buy wisely. Do your research, ask what is in it and how it was made. Your stomach will thank you for it.  But my advice is get your hands stuck in and make your own, your stomach and your general well being will thank you for it.

* I googled some of the ingredients and if I am honest it gave me a headache trying to understand what some of these are and how they are produced, but from my very limited layman’s interpretation I have set out what some of them are:

Mono and di-gycerides of fatty acids, also known as E471 are extracted from mostly vegetable oil but sometimes from animal fats hence The Vegan Society warns that vegan and vegetarian consumers should be careful when this is listed in the ingredients. It may also be made from pork fat, so is a consideration for those who for religious or cultural reasons do not eat pork. The oil or fat (normally hydrogenated soybean oil) is heated with glycerol and the mono and di-glycerides are synthesised.  Their purpose in the loaf is to act as an emulsifier and anti-staling. Their addition improves loaf volume and texture. (In a home-made loaf both volume and texture can be obtained with proper gluten development and fermentation and staling is delayed with proper fermentation).

Calcium Sulphate is mined from limestones and added as an anti-caking agent (reducing lumps in the dough when liquid is added), dough strengthener and stablizer.  (Good mixing will get rid of any lumps and proper gluten development and fermentation will strengthen the dough in a home made loaf.)

Calcium Silicate is produced from lime, hydrochloric acid and sodium silicate and is used as an anti-caking agent.

Ascorbic Acid is vitamin C by another name. It improves the loaf volume and texture and reduces the rising time of the loaf.  The vitamin C will not have any nutritional value as it is too small an amount to make a difference to your daily requirement; it is in a less complex form than that found naturally in foods and is mostly baked out.  Ascorbic acid is an ingredient in easy bake/ instant yeast so if you are using this yeast you will also be adding this into your homemade loaf.  If you want to ferment your loaves for a longer time then having ascorbic acid in the mix can cause the loaves to over ferment and the gluten to become too weak. To avoid this use dried active yeast (follow the instructions to hydrate in water before use) or preferably, fresh yeast.

You can find out more about additives in industrially produced bread at The Real Bread Campaign.

Flour absorbency

One of the things I bang on about during my bread classes is how different flour can be. Even using the same brand of flour can be different from bag to bag. It will depend on so many factors: where the grain was grown – country and even county can make a difference; the soil health and type; weather conditions the grain was grown in; whether it’s spring or winter wheat; the variety of grain; how long it has been since harvest; how long since the flour was milled; how it was milled – roller and stone grinding produce very different flour texture and flour composition; whether the grain was tempered before milling; the moisture content of the grain at the time of milling; the protein content of the grain; the gliadin/glutenin ratio of the grain etc.

See what I mean? There are a lot of variables even if you are considering what may seem at first the same type of flour, i.e strong white.  All of these factors will make a difference to how the dough absorbs water. Then if you bring in the difference between using white flour, wholemeal flour, adding in rye, einkorn, spelt, emmer, kamut the absorbency of the flour changes again.

This morning I have been preparing starters ready for my sourdough class on Saturday. I have used my wholemeal starter as a basis for making a white, rye and spelt to show how it is possible to have flexibility with your starters without maintaining four different starters all the time.  I take my wholemeal starter and refresh it about four times in the next two days. By then, it has changed its appearance, its aroma and its flora. When I mixed them up this morning I used 20g of my wholemeal starter, 50g of flour and 50g of water.  Here is how they all look:

Using wholemeal spelt (20g of fairly stiff wholemeal starter, 50g wholemeal spelt, 50g water)

Making a white starter using 20g fairly stiff wholemeal starter, 50g white flour (roller milled, organic), 50g water

Making a rye starter using 20g fairly stiff wholemeal starter, 50g wholemeal rye (aka dark rye), 50g water

I hope this illustrates that these different flours have very different absorbency rates.  The rye will take a lot more water than the white and the spelt. Whilst the spelt needs a little more water to get to the same consistency as the white.

When you are making bread use your senses – touch, sight and smell, to adapt your recipe. Don’t follow a bread recipe word for word. If it asks for 325g of water, add 300g and then splash more in as you mix. Use your sense to tell you when your dough has had enough water. Let your dough sit for at least ten minutes and then see if it needs a bit more water. If you think it does, wet your hands and use the remaining water on your hands to mix the dough a bit more. Keep doing this until the dough feels right.  Bread making is all about your senses and getting used to how the dough feels in your hands and adapting to each batch of flour and each loaf by learning from experience.

What to do with leftover bread…

One of the things that we have plenty of in this household is bread.  If I don’t have a course then I am either making bread for us to eat or I am experimenting with new techniques and new flavours. We often have three (or more) crusts of various loaves sitting on the bread board.  Our chickens are good at eating the leftovers but sometimes even they go on strike. To be honest, I prefer it if we eat the leftovers rather than give them to the chickens. So, this is what I do with them.

Rip it into chunks and add it to the next loaf.  This way of recycling the bread makes your next loaf taste even more delicious.  I place the chunks of bread in the bowl that I am going to make the loaf in and add the water that I am going to use for the loaf and let it soak for about twenty minutes. Then make the loaf as normal, you may need a little extra water to make your dough softly sticky, as it should be.

Bread sauce. Next to bread, this may be my favourite thing to eat. Having said that I don’t tend to eat it that often, usually at Christmas and then maybe a couple of times of year. However, each time I eat it I wonder why I don’t make it at least every week, if not every day. My recipe is here.

Panzanella salad. Rip your leftover loaf into chunks, slice a few really tasty tomatoes (this really should be  made with the best tomatoes you can find and only when in season, if homegrown, then even better) into chunks and mix them with the bread, mush them together to release the juices of the tomatoes into the bread. Add salt, pepper, thinly sliced red onion, some fresh herbs ( basil, oregano, marjoram, thyme, parsley, whatever you have to hand and like the taste of), a good slug of olive oil and really anything else that you want to add.

Bread pudding. This is stodgy, fruity and delicious. My recipe is here.

Savoury bread pudding aka Mozzarella and tomato strata. I tried this after reading about it on Nancy’s website and was converted. It is a wonderful way to use up stale bread.

Bread and butter pudding is always a favourite after Sunday dinner. There is something very comforting about the contrast between the oozy custardy bread underneath the crusty (almost burnt) sugary topping. My recipe is here.

In winter Aromatic Shropshire Pudding takes some beating. Unless you make Queen of Puddings

One that I have always wanted to try but somehow never managed to get round to it is Brown Bread Ice Cream. I must get round to righting that wrong.

If all else fails, let the loaf dry out and then pulse in a food processor or cut up finely with a knife to make breadcrumbs. Place in a food bag and pop in the freezer for the next time a recipe calls for breadcrumbs.

Whatever you decide to use your ends of loaf for, please don’t put them in the bin. If you have any other recipes that makes good use of leftover bread let me know.

The Veg Patch Loaf Project Instalment 7

Well, the wheat ears are ripening. We have had the driest summer since the 1960’s (or so they tell us on the telly) and the parched grass is certainly evidence of that. We watered the wheat sparingly at the beginning of its growth and it hasn’t had a water for a few weeks now. We have been lucky to have had a few rainstorms during a few nights in the last couple of weeks which has just about kept the garden ticking over.

Wheat ears ripening

I am wondering if we will ever get to harvest the wheat though. This dry weather has meant there is very little food for the deer that roam locally and the other night they found our borlotti beans and stripped them off to as far as they could reach.  As soon as I discovered this I reinstated the collie disruption mechanism , now renamed the deer disruption mechanism. I seriously doubt that it will really stop a hungry, marauding deer, but it makes me feel a little more reassured that I might yet harvest enough for a loaf. Keep your fingers crossed for me.

Wheat in garden

The wheat on 24th July 2018